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It's an insular State of Africa localized in the Indian ocean and also named in Malagasy Madagasikara.


Surface: 587 000 km2
Number of inhabitants: Evaluation to 26 millions in 2020
Name of the inhabitants: Malagasies or Madagascans
Capital: Antananarivo
Languages: Malagasy, French and English
Currency: Ariary (1 Euro = 4200Ariary)


Madagascar is formed horizontally by three cords of disposed relief: to the center, the high trays granitiques, sometimes surmounted from volcanic massifs, to the climate moderated by the altitude, to the East a narrow coastal, hot, humid and forest plain and to the west of the trays and the sedimentary, chalky hills and gréseux, to the drier climate, domains of the clear forest, the savanna and the bush.


Rice, cassava and the bovine raising, constitute the bases of the daily activity of the Malagasy. Coffee especially, the clove, vanilla, the sugar cane assures, with the fishing, the essential of the exports, completed by the products of the basement. The industry is again little active safe to the center and tertiary sector is dominated by casual activities. Thus, the country stays again in the ranks of the Developing countries.

The origins to the colonization.

5th-12nd century: Of the waves of Indonesian, African and Arabian migrations would have come on the coasts of Madagascar and has begin has explore the inside of the country.
14 e - 17 e centuries. : From the 14th s., the crossed Arabian tradesmen get settled on the coasts of the island for the trade. The Europeans also arrive in 1500 but don't arrive to create lasting establishments. In the same way, some kingdoms emerge since the 13rd century.

18th century: The kingdom merina (Antananarivo) spreads on the quasi-totality of the island, grace especially to the conquests of Andrianampoinimerina and his/her/its son Radama I.
1828 - 1861: Ranavalona Ier closes the schools and hunt the Europeans.
1865 - 1895: The real power is detained by Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, spouse of three successive queens, who modernizes the country, converts to the Protestantism, but must accept the French protectorate (1885).
1895 - 1896: The Duchesne expedition succeeds to the decay of the queen Ranavalona III and the annexation of the island by France.
1896 - 1905: Gallieni, governor, works to pacification and exile the queen.

The independence.

1960: the Malagasy Republic, proclaimed in 1958, gets its statute of independence.
1972: following the violent strikes, president Tsiranana abandons the power.
1975: D. Ratsiraka is elected president of the democratic Republic of Madagascar. Toward the beginnings of the years 1990, thankful the failure of a socialist experience, he/it hires his/its country on the way of a calculated liberalism.
1991: The opposition mobilizes himself and the unrests reinforce themselves. The state of emergency is proclaimed. A government of transition is installed.
1993: The approval, by referendum, of the new Constitution (1992) is followed by the election to the presidency of Republic of Albert Zafy, fallen some years later.
1997: D. Ratsiraka (elected in December 1996) comes back to the head of the state.
2001 - 2002: The results contested of the first tour of the presidential election opposing D. Ratsiraka in Marc Ravalomanana generated important unrests. The crisis ends with the official investiture of M. Ravalomanana to the head of the state in 2002 and the departure of D. Ratsiraka in exile.
2006: M. Ravalomanana is reelected.
2009: The mayor of the capital, Andry Rajoelina (TGV) leads a strike to oust Ravalomanana
2009-2013: A transition is put in place by Andry TGV, the international community denounces a stroke of state and the country doesn't stop penetrating in an economic crisis.
2014: The elections of all level have them place and H. Rajaonarimampianina was elected president.

2018: Popular strikes broke out in the capital and shook Rajaonarimampianina regime. Differents election was organized and Andry Rajoelina was elected president for 05 years.


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